A bone fracture is a medical condition in which a bone is cracked or broken. Many fractures result from high force impact or stress such as falls, accidents and sports injuries. Bone fractures also develop from medical conditions that weaken bones, such as osteoporosis, certain types of cancer or osteogenesis imperfecta (brittle bone disease).
Fractures are classified in many ways.
A simple, closed fracture is much easier to treat than an open, contaminated fracture:
In a closedfracture, the skin is intact.
An open or compound fracture involves wounds that have broken through the skin and may expose the bone to contamination. Open fractures carry a higher risk of infection, require antibiotics and usually surgical treatment (debridement), to remove dirt, contamination and dead tissue.
A simple fracture occurs along only one line. It splits the bone into two pieces.
Multi-fragmentary fractures occur when the bone splits into multiple pieces.
Compression fractures occur when the front portion of a vertebra in the spine collapses due to osteoporosis.
A bone fracture may be very painful, due to stimulation of nerve receptors, swelling and muscle spasms. Since bone healing is a natural process, fracture treatment aims to ensure the best possible function of the injured part after healing. Typically, fractured pieces of bone are restored to their natural positions, with verification provided by an X-ray. A fractured limb is held in place with a plaster or fiberglass cast or splint. Once the initial swelling goes down, the fracture may be placed in a removable brace.
Surgery is done only if conservative treatment has failed or is likely to fail. Surgery is routine on hip fractures due to osteoporosis. That’s because the complications of non-operative treatment include deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism, which are more dangerous than surgery.
When a joint surface is damaged by a fracture, surgery is also commonly recommended to make an accurate anatomical reduction and restore the smoothness of the joint.